industrialization efforts of the sixties and seventies gave birth to the
modern textile industry in Turkey. At the beginning, this sector operated
as small workshops. In time the sector showed rapid development and during
the seventies began exporting. Currently it is one of the most important
sectors in the Turkish economy in terms of GDP, employment and exports.
The share of this sector in the country's GDP is around 10 % and the
sector's share of employment in total employment in the country is 20 %.
Its share of production in total industrial production of the country is
around 40 %.
Today, Turkey is one of the most important textile and clothing
producers and exporters in the world. Turkey ranks 6th in world exports of
clothing in 1998.
As a quality cotton-producing country, Turkey has an integrated and
diversified production in all sub-sectors of the textile industry,
produces and exports all types of yarn, fabric, clothing, household
textiles and other ready-made products.
Turkey, as a traditional cotton grower has a great advantage in the
production of textile and clothing. In 1999, the amount of cotton grown in
Turkey was 855 000 tons.
the year 2000, with the completion of the Southeastern Anatolian Project
(GAP), it is estimated that Turkey's cotton production will be twice what
it is today. The Southeastern Anatolian Project is the largest project
ever attempted in Turkey. Under 13 sub-projects, GAP involves 22 dams and
19 hydroelectric power plants on the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers. Upon
completion of the project nearly 1.7 million hectares of land will be
irrigated. Irrigation of the the Harran Plain began in 1994 and since then
approximately 200 000 tons cotton, which is almost one fourth of Turkey's
total cotton production, are cultivated every year.
As a consequence of the availability of raw cotton in huge amounts,
the Turkish spinning and weaving industries have also been developed. In
1999 the estimated amount of cotton yarn produced in Turkey was around 788
000 tons and cotton fabric production was 1 403 million meters.
The export value of cotton and cotton textile products was 777
million dollars in 1999. The values of cotton, cotton yarn and cotton
fabric exported were respectively 114 million dollars, 313 million dollars
and 348 million dollars in 1999. Main destinations for cotton yarn exports
are Italy, Portugal, Greece and Belgium. Main destinations for cotton
fabric exports are the UK, Italy, the USA and Belgium.
Turkey also has a strong woolen textile and clothing industry as
Turkey is one of the leading producers of wool. It is also the third
largest mohair producer in the world. The majority of woolen products meet
the demands of clothing producers and exporters and part of them are being
exported. In 1999, the export value of wool, fine hair, yarn and fabric
was 107 million dollars.
The man-made fibers industry started in Turkey with the production
of regenerated cellulose in 1938. Polyamide was first produced in Turkey
in 1964, polyester in 1968, acrylic in 1974 and polypropylene in 1975.
Turkey now has the sixth largest synthetics capacity in the world.
Most of the raw materials for synthetic fibers and yarns are
procured locally, but the main raw material for acrylic fibers is
The total value of man made fibers, yarns and fabrics exported was
1.1 billion dollars in 1999.
Main destinations for synthetic filament yarn exports are the UK,
Italy, Germany, Egypt and the USA. Main destinations for synthetic
filament fabric exports are the USA, Algeria, England, the Russian
Federation, France and Germany. Main destinations for artificial filament
fabric are Germany, France, England, the USA and Algeria.
Besides the Turkish textile industry Turkish home textile industry
has also shown a growth in terms of production and exports. In recent
years the production of home textiles has shown a stable increase due to
the rise in domestic and external demand for home textiles. Almost all
kinds of home textiles are produced in Turkey. These may be listed as
follows in order of their export values: bed linens, bed spreads, table
linens, towels, bathrobes, voiles , curtains, lace, interior blinds,
curtain or bed valances, blankets, cushions, pillows, quilts, eiderdowns.
In home textile sector, besides large scale firms there are many
small and medium sized firms scattered all around the country.
Turkish home textile manufacturers are mainly located in İstanbul,
Bursa, Denizli, İzmir, Kayseri, Gaziantep and Uşak. Towel and bathrobe
producers are mainly concentrated in Denizli and Bursa, voile producers in
İstanbul and Bursa and blanket producers in Uşak.
In some rural areas of cities such as Denizli, Muğla and Kastamonu
the production of traditional cloths is still widespread and recently they
have been used in the production of specific home textiles.
Besides meeting the domestic demand in Turkey, the Turkish home
textile sector is an important export earner for the country.
As a division of the textile industry, the home textiles sector
with an export value of 859 million dollars and a 3.2 % share in Turkey's
total exports in 1999, has been an important sub-sector for the Turkish
Still, the western countries, particularly the European countries
are the most important markets for Turkey's home textile exports. New
markets such as Poland, Hungary, Romania, the Commonwealth of Independent
States etc. are gaining more and more importance. At present Germany,
England, France, the USA, the Netherlands and the Russian Federation are
the major markets for Turkey's home textile exports.
The Turkish clothing industry, which is one of the most important
sectors for the Turkish economy has also shown a stable growth within the
years. Production volume in the Turkish clothing industry has increased in
parallel to the increase in foreign demand. In 1999 the production volume
of clothing was estimated as 223 000 tons.
The majority of clothing manufacturers are located in Istanbul.
Most of the remaining manufacturers are located in Izmir, Bursa, Ankara,
Adana and Denizli. The major part of clothing production is carried out by
the private sector.
As a result of the availability of high quality cotton in Turkey,
widely usage of CAD (Computer Aided Design) and CAM (Computer Aided
Manufacturing) and the increase in the number of qualified personnel, the
products of the Turkish clothing sector have a good reputation in foreign
markets. In addition, by
having a flexible production structure the sector can adapt itself to
changes in fashion.
Today, the Turkish textile and clothing industry is aware of the
trend in international markets towards increasing demand for healthier and
more environmentally-friendly products and tries to adapt itself to these
developments within legal and technical regulations.
In 1999 total value of clothing exports reached 6.2 billion
dollars, giving it a 23 % share of Turkey's total exports.
Approximately 80 % of the clothing exported is cotton clothing.
Knitted clothing and accessories, with an export value of 3.7
billion dollars had a share of 61 % in total clothing exports and woven
clothing had a share of 39% with a value of 2.4 billion dollars in 1999.
Major products that are being exported are: knitted jerseys,
pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats, tee-shirts, singlets, other vests,
knitted and woven suits, ensembles, jackets, blazers, dresses, skirts,
divided skirts, trousers for women and girls.
Some major markets for Turkish clothing exports are Germany, the
USA, England, France, the Netherlands and the Russian Federation. In 1999
Germany had a 38 % share of Turkey's clothing exports.
The European Union is the biggest market in Turkish clothing
exports and the total value of Turkey's clothing exports to the EU was 4.4
billion dollars. This amount gave the EU a 71 % share in 1999.
With the realization of the Customs Union between Turkey and the EU
at the beginning of 1996, quota restrictions on Turkish textile and
clothing products in the EU market were eliminated.
While in the past Turkish clothing exporters produced the styles,
patterns given by customers, today most of the exporters are producing
their own creations. Besides, while most Turkish producers used to produce
their export products with materials sent by the costumer, today almost
all of the materials used for export products are obtained from domestic
As an important textile and clothing exporting country, many fairs
in the textile and clothing sector are being held in Turkey every year. In
2000 the number of fairs planned to be organized in this sector was 34.
Most of the fairs on textile and clothing industry are held in İstanbul.